Robert Setter studied mechanical engineering at Technical University of Munich with majors in aerospace, light weight design and carbon fiber reinforced plastics. In 2017, he worked for 10 months as a visiting scholar in the field of resin-based additive manufacturing at the Polymer Engineering Center by Prof. Tim A. Osswald at the University of Wisconsin. In 2019, he wrote his master's thesis at BMW about additively manufactured injection molding polymer tools. Since March 2020, he is a research associate at the Professorship of Laser-based Additive Manufacturing by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Katrin Wudy at Technical University of Munich. He currently works in the field of innovative polymer-based additive manufacturing processes with a focus on powder- and resin-based technologies. This includes the conceptualization and development of new processes as well as the experimental analysis and characterization of polymer-based materials and additively manufactured parts.
3D printing (3DP) uses computer-aided design to build objects layer-wise or drop-wise. 3DP complements conventional subtractive manufacturing methods, where unwanted material is removed from a piece of feedstock material by cutting, drilling, or grinding. 3DP has been successfully used to create complex, topologically optimized parts that are otherwise extremely difficult or impossible to manufacture using conventional methods. 3DP is especially well-suited for distributed manufacturing, mass customization, reducing tooling costs, and minimizing material wastage. This presentation will highlight some of our recent 3DP research activities, spanning from printing polymer composites, sensors, and magnets to food and drug tablets, using a variety of techniques, such as fused deposition modeling, digital light processing, direct ink writing, and binder jetting. While the need for 3DP is motivated differently by the specific applications, the key to success is founded on understanding the underlying physics. We will also share the lessons learnt in scaling up 3DP and pursuing a rather ambitious concept of \"autonomous 3D printing\", leveraging latest imaging and machine learning methods.
In line with Europe's green deal, a new edition of the European action plan for a transition to a circular economy has been published in 2020. Amongst others, plastics have great potentials to achieve a high level of product circularity. In recent years, the plastics recycling industry has gained a great momentum to be one of the drivers towards a sustainable circular economy. However, there is still an abundance of challenges that need to be addressed and overcome in this sector. Therefore, a great focus in the new action plan is dedicated to plastics and plastic packaging products. Consequently, a set of mandatory or voluntary product requirements and regulations were reinforced or introduced as part of a new framework for eco-design and sustainable products. Furthermore, this legislative initiative also aims to enhance the traceability and the accessibility to product information through the implementation of certain digitalization tools, such as digital product passports (DPP). The main objective of this research is to provide a practical implementation of DPP of a pilot product made of recycled post-consumer plastic waste. It also aims to track the possible changes in the material property profile of a defined waste stream due to processing throughout the whole recycling process. High density polyethylene (PE-HD) bottle caps were selected as the targeted input waste stream. On the other end of the process, a frisbee (i.e., flying disc) was selected as the pilot product. Two collection methods were employed in this case study, namely informal and formal. The first fraction of bottle caps was collected by pupils and students (informal) over a period of two months in Upper Austria region with focus on PE-HD bottle caps. Whereas the other fraction was collected via the conventional methods (formal) and pre-sorted (1st sorting) to remove metal contaminants at the waste collection centers in Upper Austria. At the pilot plant, each fraction was hand-sorted (2nd sorting) individually to ensure a high purity of input materials. Afterwards, materials were shredded by an industrial shredder and then re-granulated using an industrial recycling extruder equipped with filtration and degassing systems. Thereafter, the resulting recyclates were injection molded into the finished frisbee. To characterize the material property profile of the different material states, several measurements including melt flow rate (MFR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical tests were carried out. It was found that the informal collection led to a higher material purity as the other fraction had a more prominent melting peak of polypropylene (PP), which led to a slightly higher MFR value of this input fraction. However, no significant changes in the MFR values of the other materials were observed. In terms of the mechanical properties, the tensile stiffness and strength increased after processing. In contrast, the notched Charpy impact strength of the recyclates seemed to be slightly lower than that of both input streams.
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) foams have a wide range of applications due to their high elasticity, good flexibility, low density, and high resistance to impact forces. They are used as cushioning for a variety of consumer and commercial products, including furniture, automotive interiors, helmets, and packaging. 3D printing of TPU foams would enable increased product design freedom and graded structures for novel and enhanced applications. To this end, unexpanded TPU filaments loaded with 0.0%, 7.5%, and 15.0wt.% thermally expandable microspheres (TEM) were prepared using a single screw extrusion system. TEM was incorporated using a masterbatch with 50wt.% ethylene-vinyl acetate carrier. The extrusion process parameters were set to achieve the lowest possible melt temperatures to prevent the foaming during filament fabrication. Foam samples were then in-situ printed using fused filament fabrication (FFF) process. 3-D printing parameters such as flow rate, print speed, and nozzle temperature were varied to achieve a wide range of foam density. Scanning electron microscopy and quasi-static compression tests were performed to characterize the cellular morphology and mechanical performance of the printed samples. Foams with good printability and dimensional accuracy were successfully achieved with densities as low as 0.15 g/cm3. The ability to 3-D print TPU foams with different densities provides higher design flexibility and allows to create more complex and optimized structures for a number of applications.
Prof. Dr. Guralp Ozkoc was born in 1979 in Sinop, Turkey. He received his B.Sc. degree from Gazi University and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. (2007) degrees from the Polymer Science and Technology Department of Middle East Technical University (ODTU) in Ankara, Turkey. During his Ph.D. study, he researched as an intern-PhD at DSM in 2005 in The Netherlands. His Ph.D. thesis was on the \"processing and characterization of short glass fiber and nanoclay reinforced ABS/PA6 blends\". He also focused on the dispersion characteristics of nanoclays and polymer phases of ABS and PA6 concerning microcompounding conditions. After his Ph.D. graduation, he started as an Assistant Professor at Kocaeli University (KOU), Department of Chemical Engineering, in 2007. He founded the Plastics and Rubber Technology Research Group in 2008 at KOU, where 50+ MSc and Ph.D. students are actively conducting research. He supervised more than 35 M.Sc. and 15 Ph.D. theses in the last ten years. Furthermore, he chaired the Polymer Science and Technology Graduate Program for seven years, from 2011 to 2018. In 2019, he was promoted to a full-professorship position at Kocaeli University. In September 2020, he moved to The Netherlands to research additive manufacturing of polymer composites at TNO-Brightlands Material Center as a senior researcher. After working in this position for one year, he departed to Xplore Instruments BV/The Netherlands as Chief Technology Officer and General Manager. In 2021, Dr. Ozkoc started as a contract professor at Istinye University Department of Chemistry. He holds six patents and is the author of many international scientific papers and proceedings. Dr. Guralp Ozkoc's research interests are polymer compounding, polymer blending, composites and nanocomposites, elastomeric/rubber compounds, and biodegradable and biomedical materials. 153554b96e